In 1987 the United States Navy guided missile destroyer Hoel, DDG-13, returning from a six-month deployment in the Persian Gulf and North Arabian Sea dropped anchor just offshore Pataya, Thailand in the Gulf of Thailand.[1] The ship’s crew, excited at the prospect of a new port-of-call boarded water-taxies that dropped them off just off the beach near the Balihai Plaza. After coming onshore, three of the ship’s younger crewmen made their way towards the nearby bazaar looking for food, drink and women. All three considered themselves old-salts; all three had experienced numerous other ports-of-call outside the United States and combat operations against Iranian anti-shipping units the month before in the Persian Gulf. [2] All three were typical, cocky, young Americans. However, these three young men were about to be placed in a position that no one, not even the saltiest of chiefs on the ship had warned them about. A young woman approached the three sailors with a child of about 10, 12 years old in hand. At first, the sailors thought she was looking for a handout – or a “date,” but after some linguistic gymkhana, the men realized that what the woman really wanted was to sell them her young daughter. The three sailors looked at each other, aghast at the mere idea of buying a person outright. There was no need for discussion; the sailors flatly refused the offer, which would soon be forgotten over beers and whiskey at the now defunct Marilyn! A Go Go strip bar.[3] I was one of those young men so horrified at the idea of purchasing a child. Looking back now twenty-six years after the hang-overs, the womanizing, and the bar fights and through the fog of time recall distinctly that the woman was clear that we could have done whatever we wished with that child and no one would have been the wiser. Hindsight being perfect, today I wish that we, that I had been able to come up with some better solution than outright rejection. While I did not know it the time, this was my first and thus far only experience with slavery, the buying and selling of human flesh. One may suppose that sex trafficking and sexual tourism in places such as Pataya should be expected, right? But be careful about those stones you are about to throw because it turns out that the very same activities, the selling and trafficking of human flesh occurs right here in the United States and in numbers that are too staggering to ignore.

The History of Slavery in America

American primary school students learn that with the Emancipation Proclamation, President Abraham Lincoln freed the slaves on January 1, 1863. While inaccurate, this event is what many, if not most Americans consider the end of slavery in the United States. The truth is the legal abolition of slavery would take nearly another three years. It was not until December 6, 1865 that the United States finally outlawed the institution of slavery with the passing and ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

The text of the Thirteenth Amendment reads –

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.[4]

However, the Thirteenth Amendment did not actually outlaw the trafficking of foreign slaves into the United States. That was already illegal. It was made so in 1808 when President Thomas Jefferson signed a bill outlawing the international slave trade.[5] The law did not address the intrastate slave trade. In spite of the new law providing for harsh punishments, it is estimated that as many as 300,000 slaves may have been smuggled into southern states between 1808 and 1861.[6], [7] Though in a different form and in secrecy, smuggling slaves into the United States is a practice that continues to this day.

The Problem Today

According to the 2012 Human Trafficking in Texas report, human trafficking is “the coercion of human beings for the purpose of forced labor, sexual exploitation, or both.” Those who are trafficked into slavery are subject to force, fraud and/or coercion, forced labor and exploitation and are unable to leave their situation without fear of reprisals against themselves and/or their families. The person being trafficked is not a criminal they are a victim.[8] Human trafficking in the U.S. is a $7 billion a year market, making it a very lucrative market indeed.[9]

It is important to note that, human trafficking is not migrant smuggling. Migrant smuggling is the illegal transportation of undocumented persons across international boundaries.[10] Migrant smuggling differs from human trafficking in that there is no actual or implied coercion and the person being smuggled is actively breaking the law. Additionally, the smuggled migrant is not held against their will and can depart any time they wish.[11]  It is possible and easy, however, for a migrant smuggling event to become a human trafficking event.

Slavery is the process of coercing labor or other services from a captive individual through whatever means.[12] A person subject to this coercion is the slave. There are numerous categories of slaves. There are domestic, agricultural and industrial slaves, sex slaves, bonded labor, peonage and others. For the purposes of this report, slavery will be divided into two broad categories; involuntary servitude – which encompasses the whole of slavery, and the special subcategory of sexual slavery and sex trafficking – in particular the sex trafficking of minors – with its own unique problems.[13]

Worldwide, there are about 27 million people in bondage today.[14] The U.S. Department of State estimates that between 14,500 and 17,500 people are trafficked through the United States every year.[15]  However, no one is really sure how many people are currently enslaved in the United States as domestic trafficking is nearly untraceable.  In their book the Slave Next Door, Bales and Soodalter consider the estimate of about 50,000 to be conservative.[16] However, there is some disagreement on the division of classification of these slaves. Bales and Soodalter argue that 83% are sex slaves, the remainder are various forms of laborers.[17]  While Siddharth Kara in his book Sex Trafficking argues that the vast majority of slaves in the United States are here as non-sex workers, and only 15-20% are sex slaves, essentially arguing the reverse ratio presented in The Slave Next Door.[18] However, in reading Kara’s work, it is possible that his investigation techniques were flawed. His quest to find sex slaves by “asking around” would leave an experienced investigator shaking his head. It is unlikely that anyone would open up to a stranger in those circumstances. Either way, this difference in findings is a very large disparity and indicative that more accurate research should be conducted to discover information more akin to the truth. The truth, according to veteran members of the Houston Police, probably lies somewhere in the middle and is likely extremely fluid and ever changing.[19] One thing that most experts seem to agree upon is that of the slaves in the United States, it is believed that 1 in 5 are found in Texas.[20]

The Making of a Slave

How does a person become a slave? It is difficult for the average American citizen to imagine the process by a person becomes enslaved. The traffickers use techniques to twist a person’s mind that Torquemada himself would recognize. The traffickers use lies, coercion and violence to break the will of their victims. Continued violence, the threat of violence, misinformation, isolation and starvation allow them to maintain control over time. This pattern can be seen time and again in the reports of cases that have been brought to trial and in indictments of cases pending.

On April 1, 2013 the U.S. Magistrate Judge Francis Stacy accepted the indictment of Tevon Harris aka “Da Kidd” and “King Kidd,” for two counts of trafficking of a child under 18 for commercial sex. The indictment alleges that Harris used fraud, force and coercion to force his victims to perform commercial sex acts between January and July of 2012. It is alleged that Harris would take his victims to motels rooms and rape them. He would then take away any communication devices they had, thus isolating them. He would then subject his victims to forced sex, beatings, food deprivation, and give them drugs and alcohol. Additionally, Harris allegedly photographed his subjects, further embarrassing them. Harris faces a life sentence and a $250,000.00 fine for his crimes. Should he ever be released from prison, he will face a lifetime probation term and registration as a sex offender.[21] Harris’ trial is scheduled in U.S. District Court in Houston on June 4, 2013. Tevon Harris used all the classic brainwashing techniques to condition his victims and force them to submit to his will.[22]

Craig Gadley, Jr., of Mansfield, Texas pled guilty in 2012 on various trafficking charges related to his recruitment of a 16-year-old female known in court documents only as K.P., already working illegally as a stripper. Gadley promised K.P. more money to work as a prostitute. When she agreed, he bought her “gifts,” then he claimed that she owed him the money for those “gifts.”[23] This “company store” method of indebting the victim is common not only amongst sex trafficking but also amongst many other types of trafficking where in the victim is made to feel that he or she owed a debt to their enslaver.

Jonathan Sanders, a West Coast Crips gang member, was sentenced in 2012 to 236 months in Federal Prison for Sex Trafficking of Children by Force, Fraud or Coercion. Sanders kidnapped a 15-year-old girl off the streets of National City, California and forced her to work as a prostitute for him.[24]

Benito Lopez-Perez, Anastasio Romero-Perez and Jose Gabino Barrientos-Perez are three brothers charged in 2012 with trafficking three young Mexican girls (Jane Doe 1, 2 and 3 were all either 14 or 15 years old when recruited). The Perez brothers lured the young women into intimate relationships with promises of romance and marriage and then forced them to work as prostitutes first in Mexico and then in the United States.  The Perez brothers beat and sexually assaulted their victims and threatened violence against the victims’ families to prevent them from running away. Their multi-state, international trafficking scheme ran from 2003 to 2010.[25]

The pattern emerges over and over again.  Victims are made promises to lure them into the trap, or they are simply kidnapped off the street.  Then, when they are vulnerable, they are raped, beaten, drugged and starved into submission.  They are threatened, their families are threatened, and they are made to feel helpless.

Traffickers also commonly make their victims fear the authorities, telling them that the police will abuse them, imprison them and then deport them.  Houston Police Investigator Jennifer Coffelt tells of a case in which one of the trafficking victims was a Mexican woman who, being from a tribal area in Mexico not only did not speak English, but she did not even speak the same dialect of Spanish as her fellow victims. This woman, when separated from the other victims would scream, cry and show signs of extreme distress.[26] Officer Coffelt does not know what eventually happened to her as ICE took custody of all the victims in this case. Coffelt indicates that while this victim’s level of fear was the most extreme she had ever seen most victims exhibit some fear of authorities.

It is shocking enough when these cases involve one, two or three slaves, however some trafficking organizations have ten, twenty, or dozens of slaves under their control and some have many more than that. Often these people are invisible, or nearly so, as evidenced by Kara’s inability to make contact with active victims.  As often as not trafficking cases are uncovered during the investigation of other crimes.  On April 18, 2011, in San Diego, California after an 18-month RICO investigation, federal authorities indicted 38 individuals, mostly members of the Crips street gang with racketeering related to the sex trafficking of underage girls and women.[27], [28]

Not all trafficking originates in the border towns either.  Between October 1998 and June 2011, the Granados-Hernandez trafficking organization smuggled youths from Mexico to the United States forcing them to work as prostitutes in New York City and other places.  Three cousins, Lira-Robles, Eleuterio and Samuel lured their victims with promises of marriage and support; the victims would then be trafficked into the United States through the cousins’ hometown of Tenancingo, a central Mexico town southwest of Mexico City. As with many of the cases above, the cousins used beatings, serial rape, lies and coercion and threats against their victims’ families to maintain control over their victims. At the time of indictment prosecutors had identified eight victims. [29]

Not all trafficking is sex related, in fact, as previously mentioned; some argue that the bulk of human trafficking is related to activities other than commercial sex. There are many industries and markets for trafficked persons.  Perhaps one of the most egregious and profitable cases any sort of trafficking is that of the Paoletti family and Adriana Paoletti. Over the course of ten years Adriana convinced hundreds…let me say that again…hundreds, possibly as many as 1000 Mexicans to cross into the United States with promises of opportunity and good jobs. The Paolettis targeted deaf and hearing impaired Mexicans who had little hope of economic success in their own country.[30] This worked particularly well since the Paolettis themselves were deaf and that engendered trust amongst their victims. The Paolettis transported their victims from Mexico, through California and Texas, to New York and Chicago where they were imprisoned in rundown and overcrowded apartments and houses, forced to sleep on the floor and bare mattresses, beaten, threatened, and abused. Women were systematically raped. The Paolettis would purchase cheap novelty trinkets and send their victims out with one or two hundred at a time to sell for $1.00 a piece. The victims were given orders to not return until they had sold all the trinkets. The victims, now panhandling slaves, would leave their trinket with a prospective buyer with a note indicating “I am deaf.”  They would work a room and when done return to collect either their dollar, or the trinket.[31]  Returning back home without having sold all the trinkets would result in beatings, starvation, being locked out and other forms of deprivation and abuse.  The Paolettis also used a unique form of incentives including prizes and trips to Disneyland for their highest sellers, thus providing not only a stick, but a carrot as well.[32]   The amount of money that the Paolettis brought in through this scheme is astounding.  The fifty-seven victims working in New York City alone brought in at least $5700.00 a day![33]  The Paolettis plied their trade for a decade before – after numerous missteps by the city – New York City Police finally busted them.[34] That day 57 slaves, including 12 children were freed.[35] In the end, for trafficking and enslaving as many as 1000 people, Adriana was sentenced to fourteen years in federal prison and fined $1,000,000.00.  Her victims, not covered under the as yet promulgated TVPA, were given the opportunity to apply for “S” type visas – a type normally reserved for witnesses of terrorist acts or organized crime – a first for trafficking victims.[36]

Victim Protection

So you have been a slave, you have finally been rescued; you think the days of constant and overwhelming abuse and mistreatment are over. You are wrong. Now the prosecutor in the county where you were forced to prostitute yourself wants to charge you with solicitation. This seemingly insane scenario happened over and over again to people whose lives had been devastated by the slavers. After what may have been – and likely was – years of abuse and torture, former slaves would find themselves in a system seemingly compelled to continue humiliating them by treating them, not as the victims of a crime, but as criminals themselves. As late as 2007, the Harris County District Attorney’s Office in Houston, Texas charged a thirteen-year-old child with prostitution.[37] Yhe DA’s office argued that in spite of Texas law saying that a thirteen-year-old child can never consent to sexual contact, a thirteen-year-old child could be charged with agreeing to a sexual act.[38], [39] It is a distinction that only a politician intent on increasing his own prestige could make. The Harris County DA’s office actually had the audacity to fight this case all the way to the Texas Supreme Court, and even more audaciously – though one is tempted to use the word “ridiculously” here – argued that prosecution and imprisonment are the best solutions that there were for either a child prostitute or a victim of human trafficking. Fortunately, the Texas Supreme Court did not agree and held that because a minor [under the age of fourteen] cannot legally consent to sex, a minor cannot commit prostitution as an offense under the Texas Penal Code, and that the legislature did not intend to “transform a child victim of adult sexual exploitation into a juvenile offender.”[40] Perhaps the most offensive fact in this case is that there is no evidence that the thirteen-year-old victim’s unnamed 32-year-old “boyfriend”/pimp was ever tried for any crime.

Root Causes and Facilitators for an Ancient Problem

To find solutions to a problem one has to understand the causes of that problem.  The root causes of human trafficking have always been complex. Abject poverty, political instability, desperation, lack of education, and opportunity at home, violence in its myriad forms, all contribute to the human trafficking. Another enticement for people to enter into to the flourishing slave trade is the demand for cheap and exploitable labor in every aspect of that market. Yet, perhaps the greatest problem lies in an apparent innate desire in many persons to control and dehumanize others. Couple this compulsion with society’s apparent need to place blame on the victims of human trafficking and you have a perfect recipe for lucrative and continued trade in human beings.

The earliest known records of slavery and prostitution date back to 1760 BC in the Hammurabi Code. [41]  Any attempt to regulate behavior that has existed essentially since the dawn of man is doomed to failure without a sea change in attitudes. Human trafficking, slavery, and prostitution are all ancient ills having always been with humanity. Bearing that in mind, we may simply have to accept that we will never eradicate the scourge of human trafficking and its concurring abuses. However, that does not mean we should not try to lessen the impact and damage done by human trafficking, sex trafficking and slavery. Laws and prosecution are important tools in fighting human trafficking; they are also highly visible and politically profitable to those who pass them. Yet, as evidenced by history, laws alone cannot be the only tools in our kit as the law alone cannot be effective in the face of an active and profitable market.

It does not help that the victims of these crimes are often socially invisible. Stories abound of officials who, given the chance to end a slave’s suffering, did not recognize that person as a slave. The Paolettis victims made multiple attempts to seek help, both passively and actively, only to be rebuffed by officials. Similarly, in 1999, Sheriff’s deputies investigating nude workers at the Kaufman House, a residential mental facility in Newton, Kansas, were told the patently ridiculous story that the workers were “naturists” and they worked nude as a part of their philosophy. In truth, the patients of the facility were being forced to perform work in the fields, in the nude, as punishment for some infraction. The Sheriff’s office simply accepted the “naturists” explanation without further investigation.[42] The Kaufman Homes would not be closed forever until 2004, when the FBI raided them twenty-four years after the facility opened. Arlan Kaufman received a thirty year prison sentence, his wife a mere seven years. Additionally the court ordered the Kaufmans to pay restitution to their victims and reimburse Medicare for fraudulent claims.[43] These are just two examples of a myriad of stories of victims overlooked by public officials.

The Law, the NGOs, and the Public

Since the year 2000, the United States has created laws to fight human trafficking. In that year, the Clinton administration signed into law the Trafficking Victims’ Protection Act (TVPA).[44] In the two years after passage, there were thirty-six convictions under the TVPA.[45] In 2012 there were 151 federal convictions – and increased of 10 over the previous year.[46] Additionally, by 2012 there were over 1900 active investigations into human trafficking performed by local and federal agencies.[47] The law necessarily focuses on those victims who suffered “severe forms of trafficking.”[48] The TVPA also attempts to make a clear distinction between those who willingly migrated illegally to the United States, and those who were coerced in some way and then forced into slavery. Officers of the Houston Police Department’s Family Violence Unit indicated in an interview that one of the biggest challenges lay in determining whether a person was trafficked, and to be handled one way, or an illegal migrant, and to be handled another.[49] Even large law enforcement agencies such as the Houston Police Department do not have the resources to investigate every individual’s circumstances, as such, officers rely on victims self-identifying in all but the most extreme cases.[50]  Those victims that are identified are then eligible for assistance in the form of residence visas, work permits, medical and mental health care, legal assistance, immigration assistant, and federal public benefits identical to those with a refugee status.[51]   However, according to the State Department’s own report, funding for victims’ assistance was insufficient to provide for victims’ needs over the course of a prosecution.[52] The TVPA was reauthorized and improved by Congress in 2003, 2005 and 2008.[53] A full summary of how the re-authorizations have changed and improved the TVPA would be appropriate, but is beyond the scope of this report.

As much as we need good laws related to human trafficking, laws are reactionary, providing a course of action after the fact. There is no evidence that laws against human trafficking, slavery, or sex trafficking are any more effective to prevent the behavior than laws prohibiting the import of illicit drugs. As evidenced by the “War on Drugs,” the stricter we make drug laws and the tougher we make punishments, the more creative the traffickers have become in circumventing the laws and the more likely they are to use violence to achieve their ends. As this is true with the war on drugs, it was true during prohibition, and it has been true in every instance of prohibition attempted in the face of an active market and in the absence of social support of those laws. In other words, relying solely on the force of law to prevent human trafficking is a recipe for failure.

Any effective solution must include social action that fights ignorance, poverty and hopelessness.  We must educate the victims, the general public, and the trafficker to the ills of human trafficking. To that end, we must educate first responders, law enforcement officers, medical emergency personnel, teachers, public servants and as well as the general public in order to allow all of them to recognize the signs and symptoms of human trafficking. That is a serious challenge because as with many diseases, it shares symptoms with other conditions. That child who has been absent from school, is she really ill, is she a truant, or is she a slave forced to work in a sweatshop or on the street turning tricks? That deaf person asking for money, is he free to go about his business, or is he forced to turn his earnings over at the end of the day to a master? That girl you danced with at the Taxi Club, is she just working her way through college, or is she turning tricks on the side and locked in the back room with thirty other women and girls at night? These are challenging questions. Fortunately, many government and non-government organization offer training and resources to help citizens recognize slavery in our communities. One organization providing such training, the Washington based NGO Free the Slaves, has printed a handbook; Slavery Still Exists and It Could be in Your Backyard; A Community Member’s Guide to Fighting Human Trafficking and Slavery.[54], [55]

We must also find ways to provide opportunities for people to prevent them from becoming victims of the traffickers. In January 2013, law firm Latham & Watkins helped the anti-slavery organization Not For Sale set up a for-profit tea business in the Peruvian Amazon. This economic solution, though limited, will provide funds for education, investment in health infrastructure, and other measures that the sponsors hope will reduce the areas residents’ susceptibility to trafficking.[56] The efficacy of the program remains to be seen; however, it is action and could become a model for future efforts.

At the federal, state, and local level, we must also continue to pursue, investigate, prosecute and punish severely those who, for their own personal gain, would take advantage of desperate people. Additionally we must spread the workload around, currently, the TVPA places most of the responsibility on federal agencies, but the states must also take a hand in preventing trafficking. Texas currently has 47 organizational entities that are a part of the Human Trafficking Prevention Task Force, and that is a good start.[57]

Human trafficking is a difficult and complex topic with very few clear answers. Numerous solutions have been approached with varying degrees of success.  Locally, we must raise public awareness of the problem. We must train our first responders in how to deal with human trafficking and give them the resources to do so. We must provide support for victims, including effective prosecution of their tormentors. We must also engage our lawmakers and ensure that they are moving forward, not backward, nor are they stagnating on laws related to human trafficking. This is only the beginning of a long list of “must do’s” in the fight against human trafficking. Most importantly, as a society and as individuals, we must decide that eradicating human trafficking and slavery from our city, our state, our nation and the world is a cause important enough for us to act upon. If we do not act, then we are doomed to failure.

Bibliography:George Brown Tindall & David E. Shi, America; A Narrative History – 6th Ed. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, NY. 2004

Nandita Sharma, Anti-Trafficking Rhetoric and the Making of a Global Apartheid. Source: NWSA Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3, States of Insecurity and the Gendered Politics of Fear (Autumn, 2005), pp. 88-111 Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press Stable URL:

Austin Police Department – Human Trafficking Unit
URL: .

David Spencer, Clandestine Crossings; Migrants and Coyotes on the Texas-Mexico Border. Cornell University Press, Ithica, NY. 2009.

William Walter Davis, PhD. and Hammurabi, The Codes of Hammurabi and Moses With Copious Comments, Index, And Bible References.  Jennings and Graham, 1905.  Can be found free on Google Play:


The National Archives and Records Administration, the Constitution of the United States.
URL: Accessed: 04/18/2013

Eduardo Saenz Rovner, The Cuban Connection; Drug Trafficking, Smuggling, and Gambling in Cuba from the 1920’s to the Revolution. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 2008

Harris County Sheriff’s Office – Human Trafficking Rescue Alliance (HTRA).

Texas Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Human Trafficking in Texas: More resources and Resolve Needed to Stem Surge of Modern Day Slavery. August 2011. URL:–ver%2050–FINAL.pdf Accessed: 04/15/2013

Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Press Releases.
URL: Accessed: 04/18/2013

In The Supreme Court Of Texas, No. 08-1044 In The Matter Of B.W.
South Western Reporter #: 313 S.W. 3d 818. Texas Supreme Court

URL: Accessed: 04/23/2013

Kelly Lytle Hernandez, Migra! A History of the U.S. Border Patrol. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 2010

Rachel Shigekane, Rehabilitation and Community Integration of Trafficking Survivors in the United States Source: Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Feb., 2007), pp. 112-136 Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press Stable URL:

Adrien Wing and Diane Marie Amann, Slave Trafficking as a Crime Against Humanity. Source: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (American Society of International Law), Vol. 101(MARCH 28-31, 2007), pp. 277-279 Published by: American Society of International Law Stable URL:

Siddhartha Kara, Sex Trafficking; Inside the Business of Modern Slavery. Columbia University Press, New York, NY. 2010

Kevin Bales & Ron Soodalter, The Slave Next Door; Human Trafficking and Slavery in America Today. University of California Press, Berkely, CA. 2009.

Wendy Chapkis, Trafficking, Migration, and the Law: Protecting Innocents, Punishing Immigrants. Source: Gender and Society, Vol. 17, No. 6 (Dec., 2003), pp. 923-937

Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. Stable URL: Accessed: 04/25/2013

Martti Lehti and Kauko Aromaa, Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation. Source: Crime and Justice, Vol. 34, No. 1 (2006), pp. 133-227. Published by: The University of Chicago Press

Stable URL: .

Department of State, United States of America, Trafficking in Persons Report 2012. URL:  Accessed: 04/16/2013

United States Attorney’s Office – Southern District of Texas
URL: Accessed: 04/19/2013

Julia O’Connell Davidson, Will the Real Sex Slave, Please Stand Up? Source: Feminist Review, No. 83, Sexual Moralities (2006), pp. 4-22. Published by: Palgrave Macmillan Journals. Stable URL: Accessed: 04/25/2013

Dan Archer, Nepal: ‘I was 14 when I was sold. BBC News Magazine, 04/22/2013 URL: Accessed: 04/23/2013.

ANTI-HUMAN TRAFFICKING RESOURCES:National Human Trafficking Hotline (NHTH)
(888) 373-7888Break the Chain Campaign            
1112 16th St. NW, Suite 600
Washington DC 20036
(202) 234-9382 Rescue & Restore Coalition
PO Box 541184
Houston, TX 77254
Office: (713) 874-0290
Fax: (713) 874-0233 For Sale
PO Box 1000
Half Moon Bay, California 94019
(650) 560-9990 the Slaves
1320 19th St NW #600
Washington, DC 20036
(202) 775-7480


[1]               Seastory – USS Hoel.  URL:;id=50;url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww% 2seastory%2Eus%2Fhoel%2F. Accessed: 04/15/2013

[2]               Operation Nimble Archer. URL:  Accessed: 04/15/2013

[3]               Marilyn! A Go Go – strip bar Accessed: 04/15/2013. Marilyn’s was one of the prime reasons that the old hands called Pataya the Asian Sin City. If you wanted it, it could probably be procured at Marilyns. Marilyn’s closed down in 2005 or 2006.

[4]               The National Archives and Records Administration, the Constitution of the United States.
URL: Accessed: 04/18/2013

[5]               George Brown Tindall & David E. Shi, America; A Narrative History – 6th Ed. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, NY. 2004. 257

[6]               America; A Narrative History – 6th Ed. 257

[7]               The text of the 1808 law can be read at: URL: – the law provided for forfeiture of the vessel, up to $20,000.00 in fines – the equivalent of $280,000.00 today, and up to ten years in prison

[8]               Texas Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Human Trafficking in Texas: More resources and Resolve Needed to Stem Surge of Modern Day Slavery. August 2011. 3

[9]               Julia O’Connell Davidson, Will the Real Sex Slave, Please Stand Up? Source: Feminist Review, No. 83, Sexual Moralities (2006), pp. 4-22. Published by: Palgrave Macmillan Journals. Stable URL: Accessed: 04/25/2013. 5

[10]             Texas Advisory Committee. 3

[11]             Harris County Sheriff’s Office – Human Trafficking Rescue Alliance. URL:  Accessed: 04/18/2013

[12]             Siddhartha Kara, Sex Trafficking; Inside the Business of Modern Slavery. Columbia University Press, New York, NY. 2010. 5

[13]             Texas Advisory Committee. 1

[14]             Kevin Bales & Ron Soodalter, The Slave Next Door; Human Trafficking and Slavery in America Today. University of California Press, Berkely, CA. 2009. 3

[15]             Ibid., 6

[16]             Ibid., 7

[17]             Texas Advisory Committee. 3

[18]             Kara, 185

[19]             April 23, 2013 interview with Houston Police Department, Family Violence Unit Sergeant Jacinda Gunter and Investigator Jennifer Coffelt. (HPD Interview)

[20]             Bales & Soodalter. 11

[21]             Ibid.

[22]             United States Attorney’s Office – Southern District of Texas URL: Accessed: 04/19/2013

[23]             Immigration and Customs Enforcement.  Press Releases.
URL: Accessed: 04/26/2013

[24]             Immigration and Customs Enforcement.  Press Releases.

URL: Acessed: 04/26/2013

[25]             Immigration and Customs Enforcement.  Press Releases.

URL: Accessed: 04/18/2013

[26]             HPD Interview

[27]             RICO is the acronym for the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act; 18 USC Chapter 96  URL: Accessed: 04/26/2013

[28]             Immigration and Customs Enforcement.  Press Releases.

URL: Accessed: 04/18/2013

[29]             Immigration and Customs Enforcement.  Press Releases.

URL: Accessed: 04/18/2013

[30]             Bales & Soodalter, 121

[31]             Note: I have personally seen this scam run in Chicago and San Diego in the 1980’s and had no suspicion that it could be anything other than a (possibly) deaf person trying to make some money.

[32]             Bales & Soodalter, 122

[33]             Ibid., – making this a $2 million a year business in New York City alone. One can only imagine how much money the Paolettis brought in over the course of a decade!

[34]             Ibid., 123 –Police and emergency workers, as well as fire marshals and the NYC building dept. had all been in the Paolettis “stables” at one time or another.

[35] Deborah Sontag, Poor and Deaf From Mexico Betrayed in Their Dreams, New York Times. July 25, 197.  URL: Accessed: 04/26/2013

[36]             Bales & Soodalter, 125

[37]             Craig Malisow, 13-Year-Old Can’t Be A Prostitute Because She Can’t Consent To Sex, Attorneys Argue. Houston Press, Hairballs. URL: Accessed: 04/22/2013

[38]             Ibid.

[39]             Texas Penal Code Sec. 22.011(e)(2)(B)(i) –  While Texas law does provide exceptions for children between the ages of 14-17 in which sexual contact is legally allowed, this section of  the Texas Criminal Code effectively says that children under the age of 14 can never in any way give consent to sexual contact with anyone. Part (F) of the code makes such contact a 2nd degree felony generally, and a 1st degree felony if incest is involved.  URL:  Accessed: 04/22/2013

[40]             In The Supreme Court of Texas, No. 08-1044 In The Matter Of B.W. South Western Reporter #: 313 S.W. 3d 818. Texas Supreme Court URL: Accessed: 04/23/2013

[41]             William Walter Davis, PhD. and Hammurabi, The Codes of Hammurabi and Moses With Copious Comments, Index, And Bible References.  Jennings and Graham, 1905. 33 & 40.

[42]             Bales & Soodalter, 128

[43]             Ibid., 131

[44]             Wendy Chapkis, Trafficking, Migration, and the Law: Protecting Innocents, Punishing Immigrants. Source: Gender and Society, Vol. 17, No. 6 (Dec., 2003), pp. 923-937. Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. Stable URL: Accessed: 04/25/2013. 924

[45]             Ibid., 934

[46]             Department of State, United States of America, Trafficking in Persons Report 2012. URL: Accessed: 04/16/2013. 362

[47]             Trafficking in Persons Report 2012. 361

[48]             Chapkis, 934

[49]             HPD Interview

[50]             The Houston Police Dept. is the 5th largest police agency in the United States according to The Police Pay Journal. URL:

[51]             Trafficking in Persons Report 2012. 362

[52]             Ibid.

[53]             U.S. State Dept. Website: U.S. Laws on Trafficking in Persons. URL:  Accesed: 04/26/2013

[54]             Bales & Soodalter, 163

[55]             Free the Slaves, Slavery Still Exists and It Could be in Your Backyard; A Community Member’s Guide to Fighting Human Trafficking and Slavery Short URL:

[56]             Mike Scarcella, An Economic Solution to Human Trafficking. The National Law Journal, January 7, 2013.URL: Accessed: 04/22/2013.

[57]             Texas Advisory Committee. 25